A case of malignant pleural mesothelioma with elevation of G-CSF and CYFRA in the serum and pleural fluid

Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai Zasshi. 2007 Mar;45(3):243-7.[Link]

Inoue C, Kato S, Higuchi K, Inoue H.

Department of Pulmonology, Morioka Red Cross Hospital.


A 68-year-old man complaining of hoarseness and back pain, with no history of exposure to asbestos, was referred to our hospital in June 2002. He was admitted because his chest X-ray and CT scan showed atelectasis and a tumor-like region in the right lower lobe of the lung. Serum-CYFRA was 2.8 ng/ml, elevated slightly; however, no other tumor markers for lung cancer were elevated. A diagnosis of squamous cell lung cancer was made based on bronchial washing cytology. Persistent high fever and WBC count elevation did not respond to antibiotics, and reduced only after chemotherapy. Both serum G-CSF (217.0 pg/ml) and CYFRA in the pleural effusion (107.1 ng/ml) were elevated. The biopsy of the growing tumor in the right lateral abdominal wall revealed carcinoma with sarcomatous component or biphasic-type malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In spite of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the abdominal wall tumor, the tumor rapidly progressed and the patient died three months after admission. The findings at autopsy suggested the tumor was a sarcomatous MPM. However, immunohistochemical staining and tissue HABP staining revealed biphasic type MPM. Although CYFRA elevation in the serum and/or the pleural effusion in MPM patients has been previously reported, it has not been reported in any of the 5 MPM patients reported to have G-CSF elevation. Therefore, this is the first reported case of G-CSF-producing MPM with CYFRA elevation in both serum and the pleural effusion.