RhoA and vigilin are candidates for immunohistochemical markers for epithelioid malignant mesothelioma

Scientific Reports 2022 November 2 [Link]

Takuya Hiratsuka, Takushi Yamamoto, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Shinya Toyokuni, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama


Diagnostic markers of malignant mesothelioma (MM) have been extensively investigated. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers, such as calretinin, have been used for pathologic diagnosis. However, more diagnostic markers are required to improve the specificity and sensitivity of pathologic diagnosis. This study proposed two proteins as diagnostic markers for epithelioid MM. One is RhoA, an MM mutation-susceptible locus-derived protein, and another is vigilin, a lung small cell carcinoma marker. IHC was performed using 93 MM (epithelioid, 71 cases; sarcomatoid, 13 cases; and biphasic, 9 cases), 64 lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), 60 lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSC), and 14 normal mesothelial (NM) tissues. The majority of epithelioid MM cases were positive for both RhoA and vigilin, whereas both IHCs showed lower stainability in biphasic and sarcomatoid MM. Besides, both IHCs showed significantly higher stainability for RhoA and vigilin in epithelioid MM than in LAC and LSC (p < 0.05). Chi-square tests showed that both RhoA and vigilin IHC positive rate in epithelioid MM was not significantly different from that of calretinin (p > 0.05). In the differential diagnosis of MM from lung cancer, the accuracy and specificity of RhoA, vigilin, and calretinin staining were almost equivalent. Further, H-score test showed that there was no significant difference between RhoA versus calretinin and vigilin versus calretinin in IHC positivity in epithelioid MM (p > 0.05). In conclusion, RhoA and vigilin may be candidates for immunohistochemical markers for epithelioid MM.