Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase and Breast Cancer 1 Protein-Associated Protein 1 as Biomarkers for the Peritoneal Mesothelioma

Cancer Control 2023 January-December [Link]

Yue Chen, Xuemei Du, Ying Gao, Heliang Wu, Hongyu Zhao, Yandong Su


Objectives: Combination of Breast Cancer 1 protein-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) in the peritoneal mesothelioma (PeM) has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the diagnostic value of combined BAP1 and MTAP to distinguish biphasic mesothelioma (BM) from epithelioid mesothelioma (EM) with reactive stroma in peritoneum, as well as its prognostic value in PeM.

Methods: This is a retrospective study from June 2014 to December 2021. This study included 18 cases of BM and 27 cases of EM with reactive stroma, excluded sarcomatoid, and EM without reactive stroma cases, and clinicopathological information was collected. The associations between MTAP and BAP1 levels and clinicopathological features or prognosis were analyzed. Clinical follow-up data were reviewed to correlate with pathological prognostic factors using Kaplan-Meier estimator and univariate/multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: Loss/decrease of BAP1/MTAP was observed in 6 (33.3%) BM cases and 12 (44.4%) EM cases. In 5 (27.8%) cases, loss of or decreased BAP1/MTAP expression was observed in both EC and SC of BM. BAP1/MTAP loss/decrease was observed in 12 (44.4%) cases of only EC of EM but not in reactive stroma. Compared with histology alone, a combination of BAP1 and MTAP immunohistochemistry (IHC) in spindled PeM provides a more objective mean to distinguish BM from EM with reactive stroma. Loss/decrease of BAP1/MTAP was associated with peritoneal cancer index (PCI) score (P = 0.047) and completeness of cytoreduction (CC) score (P = 0.038). BM patients have worse overall survival (OS) than EM with reactive stroma (P = 0 .007).

Conclusions: Combination of BAP1/MTAP by IHC is helpful for differential diagnosis of peritoneal BM from EM with reactive stroma. Nevertheless, BAP1/MTAP may help to evaluate the biological behavior of PeM.