International Journal of Surgical Case Reports 2021 August [Link]
Hiroko Onagi, Takuo Hayashi, Tsuyoshi Saito, Satsuki Kishikawa, Kazuya Takamochi, Kenji Suzuki
Introduction and importance: Primary tumors of the pleura are rare, with malignant mesothelioma being the most common of these neoplasms. Pathological diagnosis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma can be more challenging than that of epithelioid malignant mesothelioma because of its similarities with true sarcomas and restricted or inconsistent expression of mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry analysis.
Presentation of case: Here, we present an unusual case of malignant pleural mesothelioma concomitant with lung adenocarcinoma in a 72-year-old Japanese man, a smoker with no family history of cancer and asbestos exposure. Malignant pleural mesothelioma is composed of epithelial and spindle-shaped cells. Spindle-shaped cells with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei proliferated in abundant myxoid stroma containing thin-walled blood vessels, mimicking myxofibrosarcoma. The loss of BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, and homozygous deletions of CDKN2A, detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), were observed in both components. Targeted sequencing revealed that lung adenocarcinoma harbored EGFR mutations, whereas no mutations were detected in either component of biphasic mesothelioma.
Discussion: Although alcian blue-stained mucins were detected in biphasic mesothelioma subsets, the clinicopathological significance of myxoid stroma in biphasic and sarcomatoid mesothelioma remains largely unknown.
Conclusion: Our case presented a unique morphology mimicking myxofibrosarcoma in a sarcomatoid component of biphasic mesothelioma; therefore, it raises a question on the clinicopathological significance of myxoid stroma in sarcomatous areas of biphasic and sarcomatoid mesothelioma.