Cytological Diagnosis of Malignant Mesothelioma: A Case Series

Journal of Cytology 2022 July-September [Link]

Sakshi Dahiya, Meeta Singh, Shyama Jain, Bembem Khuraijam, Naman Suroya, Shramana Mandal


Background: Mesotheliomas are neoplasms of the serosal lining of the body cavities. Diagnosis requires a multimodal approach of clinical findings, cytology, and histopathology with immunohistochemistry (IHC). The published sensitivity of cytology for diagnosing mesothelioma ranges from 30% to 75%.

Aim and objectives: This study aimed to calculate the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) at our institute and to study the cytological features of MM.

Materials and methods: A retrospective study of pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial fluids submitted at our institute was done. The duration of the study was 8 years (2011-2019). Apart from examining Giemsa smears, a panel of immunocytochemical (ICC) and cell block immunohistochemical (IHC) markers was applied to achieve the diagnosis. These included calretinin, mesothelin, CK5/6, Hector Battifora mesothelial cell antibody (HBME), WT1, MOC31, CK7 and CK20. Histopathological correlation was done wherever possible.

Result: In the present study, we compiled four cases of MM over 8 years diagnosed on serous effusion cytology and confirmed by immunocytochemistry (ICC)/cell block immunohistochemistry (IHC)/biopsy. This indicates a rare incidence of MM. The Cytological features of MM were studied.

Conclusion: The diagnosis of MM is difficult, especially cytologically. It was found to be a rare entity in the malignant cases diagnosed on effusion cytology.