Cancers 2020 February 27 [Link]
Trempolec N, Doix B, Degavre C, Brusa D, Bouzin C, Riant O, Feron O
The potential of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy to treat cancer is, nowadays, well documented. Still, the clinical success of immune checkpoint inhibitors has dampened the interest in anticancer DC vaccination. For highly life-threatening tumors that are regarded as nonimmunogenic, such as mesothelioma, however, T helper 1 immunity-biased DC-based immunotherapy could still represent an attractive strategy. In this study, we took advantage of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce immunogenic cell death to generate mesothelioma cell lysates for DC priming and evaluated such a vaccine to treat peritoneal mesothelioma. We found that the white light in vitro activation of the photosensitizer OR141 led to mesothelioma cell death, together with the release of bona fide danger signals that promote DC maturation. The administration of a PDT-based DC vaccine to mice bearing peritoneal mesothelioma led to highly significant survival when compared with sham or control animals treated with anti-CTLA4 antibodies. This was further supported by a strong CD8+ and CD4+ T cell response, characterized by an increased proliferation, cytotoxic activities and the expression of activation markers, including interferon gamma (IFN). Moreover, the PDT-based DC vaccine led to a significant increase in IFN+ T cells infiltered within mesothelioma, as determined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Finally, in vivo tracking of intraperitoneally administered DCs led us to document rapid chemotaxis towards tumor-occupied lymphatics (vs. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated DC). DCs pulsed with PDT-killed mesothelioma cells also exhibited a significant increase in CCR7 receptors, together with an intrinsic capacity to migrate towards the lymph nodes. Altogether, these results indicate that PDT-based DC vaccination is particularly suited to induce a potent immune response against peritoneal mesothelioma.