PLoS One. 2014 September 15 [Link]
Kanteti R, Dhanasingh I, Kawada I, Lennon FE, Wrif Q, Bueno R, Hasina R, Husain AN, Vigneswaran W, Seiwert T, Kindler HL, Salgia R.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. Studies have shown that both MET and its key downstream intracellular signaling partners, PI3K and mTOR, are overexpressed in MPM. Here we determined the combinatorial therapeutic efficacy of a new generation small molecule inhibitor of MET, ARQ 197, and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors NVP-BEZ235 and GDC-0980 in mesothelioma cell and mouse xenograft models. Cell viability results show that mesothelioma cell lines were sensitive to ARQ 197, NVP-BEZ235 and GDC-0980 inhibitors. The combined use of ARQ 197 with either NVP-BEZ235 or GDC-0980, was synergistic (CI<1). Significant delay in wound healing was observed with ARQ 197 (p<0.001) with no added advantage of combining it with either NVP-BEZ235 or GDC-0980. ARQ 197 alone mainly induced apoptosis (20Â±2.36%) that was preceded by suppression of MAPK activity, while all the three suppressed cell cycle progression. Both GDC-0980 and NVP-BEZ235 strongly inhibited activities of PI3K and mTOR as evidenced from the phosphorylation status of AKT and S6 kinase. The above observation was further substantiated by the finding that a majority of the MPM archival samples tested revealed highly active AKT. While the single use of ARQ 197 and GDC-0980 inhibited significantly the growth of MPM xenografts (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively) in mice, the combination of the above two drugs was highly synergistic (p<0.001). Our results suggest that the combined use of ARQ 197/NVP-BEZ235 and ARQ 197/GDC-0980 is far more effective than the use of the drugs singly in suppressing MPM tumor growth and motility and therefore merit further translational studies.