Long-Term Survival Analysis of Pleural Mesothelioma Patients Undergoing Surgery: Brief Report From a Tertiary Referral Centre

Clinical Lung Cancer 2023 October 24 [Link]

Riccardo Orlandi, Giovanni Leuzzi, Luigi Rolli, Michele Ferrari, Alessia Stanzi, Camilla Valsecchi, Ugo Pastorino


Objectives: to date, no consensus has been reached on the surgical gold-standard in pleural mesothelioma (PM). We retrospectively reviewed our experience as a tertiary referral centre, to compare short- and long-term survival of PM patients undergoing different types of surgery.

Methods: in retrospective, observational, single-centre study, we analysed all the patients histologically diagnosed with PM undergoing surgical procedures with palliative or curative intent at IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan, Italy, from January 2003 to December 2020. The primary study endpoint was 10-year overall survival (OS) in three different types of resections: extra-pleural-pneumonectomy (EPP), pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), partial-pleurectomy/pleural-biopsy (PP/B). Secondary endpoints were postoperative hospital stay and postoperative 30-day and 90-day mortality rates. The survival function was estimated using Kaplan-Meier, and the Log-rank test was used for testing differences. Univariable and Multivariable Cox regression models were implemented to estimate Hazard Ratio (HR) for all variables of interest.

Results: 243 consecutive patients were enrolled, EPP was performed in 49 (20.2%), P/D in 58 (23.8%), PP/B in 136 (56.0%) patients. The median follow-up time was 19.8 months. 10-year OS was significantly better for P/D group (16%, Log-Rank test p<0.0001) compared to PP/B (1.8%) and EPP (0%). No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 surgical groups in 30- and 90-day mortality rates. At multivariable analysis, gender (male, HR=1.58), type of resection (P/D, HR=0.55) and surgery date (recent years, HR=0.61) were found to be independent prognostic factors for OS.

Conclusions: in PM, lung-sparing curative approach (e.g. P/D) should be preferred in highly selected patients and in highly experienced centres, whenever appropriate. Anyway, when P/D is not indicated, adopting palliative/conservative management (e.g. PP/B) could ensure comparable results as extremely aggressive surgeries (e.g. EPP). The aim of surgery in PM should not be reaching complete resection, but rather accomplishing significant resection allowing to complete the multimodality treatment in highly selected patients in experienced centers.