Genomic-based Ancillary Assays Offer Improved Diagnostic Yield of Effusion Cytology With Potential Challenges in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Pathology International 2020 June 15 [Link]

Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Makoto Hamasaki, Shinji Matsumoto, Masayo Yoshimura, Ayuko Sato, Tohru Tsujimura, Toshiaki Kamei, Kunimitsu Kawahara, Kazuki Nabeshima


BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) or methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) immunohistochemistry (IHC) or 9p21 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are useful for the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, the effect of these assays on the diagnostic yield of effusion cytology in MPM cases with suspicious cytomorphology or the diagnostic challenges in BAP1 or MTAP IHC have not been fully elucidated. Two cohorts of cytologic preparations obtained from pleural effusions were examined: MPM cases in cohort 1 were used to evaluate whether BAP1 or MTAP IHC or 9p21 FISH increase the diagnostic yield of effusion cytology; cohort 2 included cases suspicious for MPM, to which BAP1 or MTAP IHC was applied to clarify the challenges in the clinical assessment of these assays. In cohort 1 (n = 28), either assay elevated 62.5% of class II or III cases to class V. In cohort 2 (n = 139), 21.7% of BAP1 immunocytochemistry in smears and 10.6% of BAP1 IHC and 9.4% of MTAP IHC in cell blocks, were identified to be challenging. The application of genomic-based assays increased the diagnostic yield of effusion cytology in the diagnosis of MPM. However, diagnostic challenges limit the application of these assays in some cases.