FK228 suppress the growth of human malignant pleural mesothelioma tumor independent to epithelioid or non-epithelioid histology

Molecular Medicine 2024 May 31 [Link]

James Mei-Lin Chan, Yuan-Ching Chang, Hua-Chen Chan, Hsiu-Chuan Chan, Wei-Chin Chang, Liu-Fang Wang, Tung-Hu Tsai, Yu-Jen Chen, Wen-Chien Huang


Human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is an aggressive, rare disease with a poor prognosis. Histologically, MPM is categorized into epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid subtypes, with the epithelioid subtype generally displaying a better response to treatment. Conversely, effective therapies for the non-epithelioid subtypes are limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of FK228, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in the suppression of hMPM tumor growth. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the histological and molecular characteristics of two MPM cell lines, CRL-5820 (epithelioid) and CRL-5946 (non-epithelioid). CRL-5946 cells and non-epithelioid patient-derived xenografted mice exhibited heightened growth rates compared to those with epithelioid MPM. Both CRL-5946 cells and non-epithelioid mice displayed a poor response to cisplatin. However, FK228 markedly inhibited the growth of both epithelioid and non-epithelioid tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell cycle analysis revealed FK228-induced G1/S and mitotic arrest in MPM cells. Caspase inhibitor experiments demonstrated that FK228-triggered apoptosis occurred via a caspase-dependent pathway in CRL-5946 but not in CRL-5820 cells. Additionally, a cytokine array analysis showed that FK228 reduced the release of growth factors, including platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors, specifically in CRL-5946 cells. These results indicate that FK228 exhibits therapeutic potential in MPM by inducing cytotoxicity and modulating the tumor microenvironment, potentially benefiting both epithelioid and non-epithelioid subtypes.