BAP1 immunohistochemistry and p16 FISH results in combination provide higher confidence in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis: ROC analysis of the two tests

Pathology International 2016 September 11 [Epub ahead of print] [Link]

Hida T, Hamasaki M, Matsumoto S, Sato A, Tsujimura T, Kawahara K, Iwasaki A, Okamoto T, Oda Y, Honda H, Nabeshima K


Differentiation of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from benign mesothelial proliferation remains problematic. Loss of nuclear staining of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1; detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC)) and homozygous deletion (HD) of p16 (detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)) are useful for differentiation of MPM from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RMH), but the correlation between BAP1 expression loss and p16 HD has not been fully described. We performed BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH for 40 MPM and 20 RMH cases, and measured proportions of cells showing BAP1 expression and p16 HD for each case. The diagnostic accuracy for MPM and the cut-off values of the two methods were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. BAP1 expression loss, p16 HD and coexistence of both were present in 27 (67.5 %), 27 (67.5 %) and 17 (42.5 %) MPM cases, respectively. Three MPM cases (7.5 %) and all 20 RMH cases had neither BAP1 loss nor p16 HD. There was no correlation between the results of the two methods. Their combination showed higher sensitivity (92.5 %, 37/40) and estimated probability than BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH used alone. BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH have independent diagnostic value, and have increased reliability when used in combination, for MPM diagnosis.