International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2018 February [Link]
Martínez-Rivera V, Negrete-García MC, Ávila-Moreno F, Ortiz-Quintero B
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but aggressive tumor that originates in the pleura, is diagnosed in advanced stages and has a poor prognosis. Accurate diagnosis of MPM is often difficult and complex, and the gold standard diagnosis test is based on qualitative analysis of markers in pleural tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Therefore, it is necessary to develop quantitative and non-subjective alternative diagnostic tools. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate essential cellular mechanisms at the post-transcriptional level. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression in tissue and body fluids is aberrant in various tumors, revealing miRNAs as promising diagnostic biomarkers. This review summarizes evidence regarding secreted and tissue miRNAs as biomarkers of MPM and the biological characteristics associated with their potential diagnostic value. In addition to studies regarding miRNAs with potential diagnostic value for MPM, studies that aimed to identify the miRNAs involved in molecular mechanisms associated with MPM development are described with an emphasis on relevant aspects of the experimental designs that may influence the accuracy, consistency and real diagnostic value of currently reported data.