Frontiers in Oncology 2017 August 24 [Link]

Pease DF, Kratzke RA


The limited effectiveness of conventional therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma demands innovative approaches to this difficult disease. Even with aggressive multimodality treatment of surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, the median survival is only 1-2 years depending on stage and histology. Oncolytic viral therapy has emerged in the last several decades as a rapidly advancing field of immunotherapy studied in a wide spectrum of malignancies. Mesothelioma makes an ideal candidate for studying oncolysis given the frequently localized pattern of growth and pleural location providing access to direct intratumoral injection of virus. Therefore, despite being a relatively uncommon disease, the multitude of viral studies for mesothelioma can provide insight for applying such therapy to other malignancies. This article will begin with a review of the general principles of oncolytic therapy focusing on antitumor efficacy, tumor selectivity, and immune system activation. The second half of this review will detail results of preclinical models and human studies for oncolytic virotherapy in mesothelioma.