Complications and Predictive Factors for Air Leak > 10 Days with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Annals of Surgical Oncology 2020 October [Link]

Akifumi Nakamura, Nobuyuki Kondo, Toru Nakamichi, Masaki Hashimoto, Teruhisa Takuwa, Seiji Matsumoto, Kozo Kuribayashi, Takashi Kijima, Seiki Hasegawa


Background: A few studies have reported the incidence and clinical implications of complications after pleurectomy/decortication (P/D).

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the details of complications and predictive factors of particularly durable air leak with P/D.

Methods: Data on 163 consecutive patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by P/D for malignant pleural mesothelioma between September 2012 and May 2020 at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative complications and the significance of various preoperative risk factors for air leak > 10 days (AL10) to identify the group having a higher risk for particularly durable air leak were investigated. Risk factors for AL10 were sought using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Of 163 patients, 30- and 90-day mortality was 0.6% and 2.5%, respectively. Eighty-four (51.4%) patients experienced grade III or worse postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. The median duration of air leak was 7 postoperative days. AL10 occurred in 53 (32.5%) patients. Fifty-eight patients (35.6%) underwent pleurodesis and five patients (3.1%) underwent reoperation to control the air leak. On univariate analysis, performance status (PS; p = 0.003), prognostic nutritional index (p = 0.01), and pleural effusion (p = 0.04) were statistically significant risk factors for AL10, while on multivariate analysis, PS (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-12.7; p = 0.02) remained the only variable predicted for AL10.

Conclusions: Recent postoperative mortality rates in NAC followed by P/D are quite acceptable. Approximately one in every three patients experienced AL10, and PS may be a risk factor associated with AL10.