BAP1, Wilms’ tumor 1, and calretinin in predicting survival and response to first-line chemotherapy in patients with pleural mesothelioma

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 2024 January 27 [Link]

Tuna Han Yuce, Guntulu Ak, Selma Metintas, Emine Dundar, Oluf Dimitri Roe, Vasiliki Panou, Muzaffer Metintas


Purpose: There are currently no methods to predict response to chemotherapy in pleural mesothelioma (PM). The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive and prognostic role of BAP1, WT1 and calretinin expression and their combinations in pre-treatment tumor samples by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining.

Methods: The study included consecutive PM patients treated with chemotherapy alone at a University hospital between 2009 and 2020. BAP1 analyses were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples of the patients, while WT1 and calretinin information were obtained from the histopathological diagnosis records.

Results: Of the total 107 patients included, 64% had loss of BAP1 expression, whereas 77% had WT1 and 86% had calretinin expression. Patients with the presence of BAP1 expression, one or both of the other two markers, or loss of expression of all three markers (unfavorable status) were more likely to not respond to chemotherapy than those with the presence of all three markers or loss of BAP1 expression and expression of one or two other markers (favorable status) (p = 0.001). Median survival time of patients with favorable and unfavorable status was 15 ± 1.7 and 8.0 ± 2.4 months, respectively (p = 0.027). After adjustment for histopathology and stage, loss of BAP1 (HR = 0.54, 95%CI 0.35-0.83), WT1 (1.75, 1.06-2.90), calretinin (2.09, 1.14-3.84) expression and favourable panel (0.50, 0.27-0.92) was associated with prognosis.

Conclusions: The IHC biomarkers BAP1, WT1, and calretinin, used in the routine diagnosis of PM and their combinations, are the first biomarkers associated with response to chemotherapy and may be a useful tool to select patients for first-line platinum pemetrexed treatment in PM patients. Validation in a large cohort is ongoing.