A Phase 1 Safety Study of Avelumab Plus Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

JTO Clinical Case Reports 2022 December 1 [Link]

Andreas Rimner, Prasad S Adusumilli, Michael D Offin, Stephen B Solomon, Etay Ziv, Sara A Hayes, Michelle S Ginsberg, Jennifer L Sauter, Daphna Y Gelblum, Annemarie F Shepherd, David M Guttmann, Jordan E Eichholz, Zhigang Zhang, Erika Ritter, Phillip Wong, Afsheen N Iqbal, Robert M Daly, Azadeh Namakydoust, Henry Li, Megan McCune, Emily H Gelb, Neil K Taunk, Donata von Reibnitz, Neelam Tyagi, Ellen D Yorke, Valerie W Rusch, Marjorie G Zauderer


Introduction: Single-agent monoclonal antibody therapy against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has modest effects in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiation therapy can enhance the antitumor effects of immunotherapy. Nevertheless, the safety of combining anti-PD-L1 therapy with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is unknown. We present the results of a phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety of the anti-PD-L1 antibody avelumab plus SBRT in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Methods: This was a single-arm, investigator-initiated trial in patients who progressed on prior chemotherapy. Avelumab was delivered every other week, and SBRT was delivered to one lesion in three to five fractions (minimum of 30 Gy) followed by continuation of avelumab up to 24 months or until disease progression. The primary end point of the study was safety on the basis of grade 3+ nonhematologic adverse events (AEs) within 3 months of SBRT.

Results: Thirteen assessable patients received a median of seven cycles (range: 2-26 cycles) of avelumab. There were 27 grade 1, 17 grade 2, four grade 3, and no grade 4 or 5 avelumab-related AEs. The most common were infusion-related allergic reactions (n = 6), anorexia or weight loss (n = 6), fatigue (n = 6), thyroid disorders (n = 5), diarrhea (n = 3), and myalgia or arthralgias (n = 3). There were 10 grade 1, four grade 2, one grade 3, and no grade 4 or 5 SBRT-related AEs. The most common were diarrhea (n = 3), chest pain/myalgia (n = 2), fatigue (n = 2), cough (n = 2), dyspnea (n = 2), and nausea/vomiting (n = 2).

Conclusions: Combination avelumab plus SBRT seems tolerable on the basis of the prespecified toxicity end points of the first stage of this Simon two-stage design phase 1 study.