Neoplasia. 2011 Jan;13(1):12-22. [Link]
Ou WB, Hubert C, Corson JM, Bueno R, Flynn DL, Sugarbaker DJ, Fletcher JA.
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MET are activated in subsets of mesothelioma, suggesting that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets in this notoriously chemotherapy-resistant cancer. However, clinical trials have shown little activity for EGFR inhibitors in mesothelioma. Despite the evidence for RTK activation in mesothelioma pathogenesis, it is unclear whether transforming activity is dependent on an individual kinase oncoprotein or the coordinated activity of multiple kinases. Using phospho-RTK and immunoblot assays, we herein demonstrate activation of multiple RTKs (EGFR, MET, AXL, and ERBB3) in individual mesothelioma cell lines but not in normal mesothelioma cells. Inhibition of mesothelioma multi-RTK signaling was accomplished using combinations of RTK direct inhibitors or by inhibition of the RTK chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Multi-RTK inhibition by the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allyloamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) had a substantially greater effect on mesothelioma proliferation and survival compared with inhibition of individual activated RTKs. HSP90 inhibition also suppressed phosphorylation of downstream signaling intermediates (AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and S6); upregulated the p53, p21, and p27 cell cycle checkpoints; induced G(2) phase arrest; induced caspase 3/7 activity; and led to an increase in the sub-G(1) apoptotic population. These compelling proapoptotic and antiproliferative responses indicate that HSP90 inhibition warrants clinical evaluation as a novel therapeutic strategy in mesothelioma.