Phase I trial of oral MAC-321 in subjects with advanced malignant solid tumors

Cancer Chemotherapy & Pharmacology. 2006 Nov 8; [Epub ahead of print] [Link]

Lockhart AC, Bukowski R, Rothenberg ML, Wang KK, Cooper W, Grover J, Appleman L, Mayer PR, Shapiro M, Zhu AX.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 777 Preston Research Building, Nashville, TN, 37232-6307, USA,


Purpose: MAC-321 is a novel taxane that has demonstrated exceptional activity in human xenograft models when administered intravenously and orally. Preclinical studies of MAC-321 have shown antitumor activity in MDR-expressing and paclitaxel-resistant tumors. This phase I dose escalation study was performed to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered MAC-321 given once every 21 days. Preliminary antitumor activity of MAC-321 was also examined.

Methods: Key eligibility criteria included adult subjects with refractory solid tumors or solid tumors for which conventional therapy was unsuitable or did not exist, good performance status (ECOG ( 2), and adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal functions. Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was performed during the first cycle of therapy.

Results: Five dose levels of MAC-321 ranging from 25 to 75 mg/m2 were evaluated in 18 subjects (four women and 14 men). MAC-321 was well tolerated at the first three dose levels (25, 37, 50 mg/m2). Two subjects developed dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at 75 mg/m2; one subject with grade 3 and one subject with grade 4 neutropenia with fever. Three subjects treated at an intermediate dose level of 60 mg/m2 had no DLTs. However, the study was terminated prior to completion of the maximal tolerated dose cohort after subjects treated with intravenous MAC-321 in a concurrent study experienced life-threatening toxicities. Other common toxicities included grades 1–2 fatigue and grades 1–2 diarrhea. There was substantial interpatient variability in the PK parameters. MAC-321 was rapidly absorbed with a mean C max value of less than 1 h. Mean C max and AUC values generally increased in a dose-related manner. The median terminal phase elimination half-life was 45 h (range 20–228 h). Disease stabilization was seen in four subjects with the following tumors: mesothelioma (14 cycles), chondrosarcoma (12 cycles), small cell carcinoma (10 cycles), and prostate carcinoma (6 cycles).

Conclusions: MAC-321 can be safely administered orally once every 21 days up to a dose of 60 mg/m2. The major DLT was neutropenic fever. Four subjects had disease stabilization.

Keywords:  Phase I – Clinical trial – MAC-321 – Paclitaxel – Docetaxel