Phase 1 study of the immunotoxin LMB-100 in patients with mesothelioma and other solid tumors expressing mesothelin
Cancer 2020 September 1 [Link]
Raffit Hassan, Christine Alewine, Idrees Mian, Anna Spreafico, Lillian L Siu, Carlos Gomez-Roca, Jean-Pierre Delord, Antoine Italiano, Ulrik Lassen, Jean-Charles Soria, Rastilav Bahleda, Anish Thomas, Seth M Steinberg, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Gerhard Niederfellner, Valérie Méresse Naegelen, Ira Pastan
Background: LMB-100 is an antibody-toxin conjugate with an antimesothelin Fab linked to a 24-kilodalton portion of Pseudomonas exotoxin A with mutations that decrease immunogenicity. The objective of the current first-in-human phase 1 study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety in patients with advanced solid tumors expressing mesothelin.
Methods: Cohorts of 1 to 7 patients received intravenous LMB-100 at 7 dose levels from 40 µg/kg to 250 µg/kg intravenously on days 1, 3, and 5 of a 21-day cycle.
Results: Of the 25 patients accrued, 17 had mesothelioma, 3 each had ovarian or pancreatic cancer, and 2 patients had gastric cancer. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 2 of 4 patients treated at a dose of 250 µg/kg (capillary leak syndrome) and in 3 of 7 patients treated at a dose of 170 µg/kg (creatinine increase). The MTD of LMB-100 was 140 µg/kg. Of the 10 patients with mesothelioma who were treated at doses of 170 µg/kg or 140 µg/kg, 8 had stable disease and 2 developed progressive disease. Peak LMB-100 plasma concentrations were dose-dependent during cycle 1. The development of antidrug antibodies decreased LMB-100 blood levels in 8 of 21 patients (38%) who received cycle 2 and 9 of 11 patients (81.8%) who received cycle 3.
Conclusions: The MTD for single-agent LMB-100 was found to be 140 µg/kg given on a schedule of every other day for 3 doses every 3 weeks. Although less immunogenic than the first-generation antimesothelin immunotoxin SS1P, the majority of patients developed antidrug antibodies after 2 cycles, indicating that LMB-100 has limited antitumor efficacy as a single agent. Phase 2 studies of LMB-100 plus pembrolizumab currently are ongoing for patients with mesothelioma and lung cancer.
Lay summary: Mesothelin, a cell surface antigen, is an attractive target for cancer therapy given its limited expression in normal human tissues and high expression in many human cancers. LMB-100 is a recombinant antimesothelin immunotoxin consisting of a humanized antimesothelin antibody fragment fused to a truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A. In the current study, the authors determined the safety, maximum tolerated dose, and pharmacokinetics of LMB-100, as well as the generation of antidrug antibodies. Ongoing phase 2 clinical trials are evaluating the combination of LMB-100 plus pembrolizumab in patients with treatment-refractory mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer.