Perioperative anaesthetic management of patients undergoing thoracic cytoreductive surgery and HITHOC

Annals of Translational Medicine 2021 [Link]

Felipe Unigarro-Londoño, Ricard Navarro-Ripoll, David Sánchez-Lorente, Laureano Molins


Historically, patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma have had a poor prognosis and survival rate. Recently, new surgical approaches and chemotherapy delivery techniques have been developed. One of this treatment options is thoracic cytoreductive surgery and HITHOC (hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy perfusion), a promising strategy in selected patients, offering significantly longer median survival length and tumour-free survival rate. However, there is little experience and little is known regarding the optimal perioperative management of this patients. Given that they usually present with poor preoperative status and the surgery is aggressive, prolonged and associated with significant hemodynamic repercussions, this procedure poses a true challenge to the anaesthesiologist. We will discuss optimal patient selection and optimization, as well as premedication, recommended monitoring aspects on top of the usual for any anaesthetic procedure, induction and anaesthetic agents, blood management and one lung ventilation. Also, we expose the importance of adequate pain control during the surgery and postoperatively, the hemodynamic disturbances that occur during the procedure and the potential complications that could occur afterwards. In a few words, this review intends to offer recommendations for the management of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and HITHOC for the perioperative care, based on the scarce evidence and our clinical experience.