Neurofibromatosis Type 2-Yes-Associated Protein and Transcriptional Coactivator With PDZ-Binding Motif Dual Immunohistochemistry Is a Reliable Marker for the Detection of Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Alterations in Diffuse Pleural Mesothelioma

Modern Pathology 2023 March [Link]

Yan Li, Soo-Ryum Yang, Ying-Bei Chen, Prasad S Adusumilli, Ann Bialik, Francis M Bodd, Marc Ladanyi, Jessica Lopardo, Michael D Offin, Valerie W Rusch, William D Travis, Marjorie G Zauderer, Jason C Chang, Jennifer L Sauter


Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) loss occurs in approximately 30% to 50% of diffuse pleural mesothelioma (DPM) with accumulation of yes-associated protein (YAP) 1 and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) in tumor nuclei. NF2 and YAP/TAZ represent potential therapeutic targets. We investigated the performance of NF2-YAP/TAZ dual immunohistochemistry (IHC) in identifying DPM that harbors NF2 alterations and in distinguishing DPM from benign mesothelial proliferations. NF2-YAP/TAZ IHC was subsequently performed in a Discovery cohort of DPMs with (n = 10) or without (n = 10) NF2 alterations detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and 9 benign cases. The cutoff values for loss of NF2 expression and YAP/TAZ overexpression using IHC were determined in the Discovery cohort. The performance characteristics of NF2-YAP/TAZ IHC were investigated in a Validation cohort (20 DPMs and 10 benign cases). In the Discovery cohort, all DPMs with NF2 alterations using NGS showed NF2 IHC scores of <2, whereas all NF2-wild-type DPMs showed scores of ≥2. NF2-altered DPMs had significantly higher YAP/TAZ H-scores (P < .001) than NF2-wild-type DPM and benign pleura (median H-scores: 237.5 [range, 185-275], 130.0 [range, 40-225], and 10.0 [range, 0-75], respectively). NF2-YAP/TAZ IHC demonstrated 95.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 95% negative predictive value for detecting NF2 alterations in DPM (n = 40) with NGS as the gold standard and 87.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity for distinguishing DPM (n = 40) from benign mesothelial proliferations (n = 19). NF2-YAP/TAZ IHC has a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting NF2 alterations in DPM and a high specificity for malignancy, highlighting potential utility for guiding NF2-targeted therapies and distinguishing DPM from benign mimics.