Metabolic Effects of New Glucose Transporter (GLUT-1) and Lactate Dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) Inhibitors against Chemoresistant Malignant Mesothelioma

International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2023 April 24 [Link]

Marika A Franczak, Oliwia Krol, Gabriela Harasim, Agata Jedrzejewska, Nadia Zaffaroni, Carlotta Granchi, Filippo Minutolo, Amir Avan, Elisa Giovannetti, Ryszard T Smolenski, Godefridus J Peters


Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive and resistant tumor. The prognostic role of key effectors of glycolytic metabolism in MM prompted our studies on the cytotoxicity of new inhibitors of glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) and lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) in relation to ATP/NAD+ metabolism, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. The antiproliferative activity of GLUT-1 (PGL13, PGL14) and LDH-A (NHI-1, NHI-2) inhibitors, alone and in combination, were tested with the sulforhodamine-B assay in peritoneal (MESO-II, STO) and pleural (NCI-H2052 and NCI-H28) MM and non-cancerous (HMEC-1) cells. Effects on energy metabolism were measured by both analysis of nucleotides using RP-HPLC and evaluation of glycolysis and respiration parameters using a Seahorse Analyzer system. All compounds reduced the growth of MM cells in the ┬Ámolar range. Interestingly, in H2052 cells, PGL14 decreased ATP concentration from 37 to 23 and NAD+ from 6.5 to 2.3 nmol/mg protein. NHI-2 reduced the ATP/ADP ratio by 76%. The metabolic effects of the inhibitors were stronger in pleural MM and in combination, while in HMEC-1 ATP reduction was 10% lower compared to that of the H2052 cells, and we observed a minor influence on mitochondrial respiration. To conclude, both inhibitors showed cytotoxicity in MM cells, associated with a decrease in ATP and NAD+, and were synergistic in the cells with the highest metabolic modulation. This underlines cellular energy metabolism as a potential target for combined treatments in selected cases of MM.