Longitudinal monitoring of response to chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma by biomarkers

Cancer Biomarkers 2023 [Link]

Filiz Bogar, Guntulu Ak, Selma Metintas, Adnan Ayhanci, Muzaffer Metintas


Background: The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate the serum levels of mesothelin, sestrin1, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), midkine, and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) before and after chemotherapy and at the time of relapse in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients treated with chemotherapy and to compare the changes in biomarker levels with radiological treatment outcome.

Methods: A total of 64 MPM patients treated with chemotherapy were enrolled in the study and longitudinally followed for changes in biomarker levels in response to treatment. Biomarkers levels were measured in serum using a human ELISA kit. Relative and absolute changes in biomarker levels were compared with the best radiological overall response at each time point.

Results: Median survival was 20.0 ± 2.4 (15.3-24.7) months in patients with partial and complete response, 17.0 ± 1.0 (15.0-19.0) months in patients with stable disease, and 9.0 ± 1.0 (7.0-11.0) months in patients with progressive disease. A significant decrease in serum levels of mesothelin, midkine, and HMGB1 was observed in patients with radiologically partial and complete responses to chemotherapy (p< 0.001, p= 0.016, and p= 0.039, respectively). In these patients, mesothelin levels decreased by 15%, midkine levels by 7%, and HMGB1 levels by 15%. In addition, HMGB1 serum levels were found to significantly increase by 15% in patients with radiologically progressive responses to chemotherapy compared to pretreatment serum levels (p= 0.035). In patients with partial and complete response to chemotherapy, mesothelin levels increased by 15%, midkine by 12%, and sestrin1 by 8% when the disease recurred (p= 0.004, p= 0.004 and p= 0.044, respectively).

Conclusion: Biomarkers may be useful in the longitudinal monitoring of response to treatment in MPM. However, the results of our study should be validated in larger groups with sufficient case numbers from multicenter institutions.