Implementation of a high-resolution, high-contrast magnetic resonance imaging protocol with extended delayed phases for peritoneal mesothelioma

Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery 2024 March 15 [Link]

Milica Medved, Hunter D D Witmer, Ankit Dhiman, Yaniv Berger, Scott K Sherman, Enal S Hindi, Samuel G Armato 3rd, Ingrid S Reiser, Aytekin Oto, Roger M Engelmann, Hedy L Kindler, Nisa C Oren, Carla B Harmath, Kiran K Turaga


Background: Imaging of peritoneal malignancies using conventional cross-sectional imaging is challenging, but accurate assessment of peritoneal disease burden could guide better selection for definitive surgery. Here we demonstrate feasibility of high-resolution, high-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of peritoneal mesothelioma and explore optimal timing for delayed post-contrast imaging.

Methods: Prospective data from inpatients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM), imaged with a novel MRI protocol, were analyzed. The new sequences augmenting the clinical protocol were (I) pre-contrast coronal high-resolution T2-weighted single-shot fast spin echo (COR hr T2w SSH FSE) of abdomen and pelvis; and (II) post-contrast coronal high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted modified Dixon (COR hr T1w mDIXON) of abdomen, acquired at five delay times, up to 20 min after administration of a double dose of contrast agent. Quantitative analysis of contrast enhancement was performed using linear regression applied to normalized signal in lesion regions of interest (ROIs). Qualitative analysis was performed by three blinded radiologists.

Results: MRI exams from 14 participants (age: mean ± standard deviation, 60±12 years; 71% male) were analyzed. The rate of lesion contrast enhancement was strongly correlated with tumor grade (cumulative nuclear score) (r=-0.65, P<0.02), with ‘early’ delayed phase (12 min post-contrast) and ‘late’ delayed phase (19 min post-contrast) performing better for higher grade and lower grade tumors, respectively, in agreement with qualitative scoring of image contrast.

Conclusions: High-resolution, high-contrast MRI with extended post-contrast imaging is a viable modality for imaging peritoneal mesothelioma. Multiple, extended (up to 20 min post-contrast) delayed phases are necessary for optimal imaging of peritoneal mesothelioma, depending on the grade of disease.