Genomic landscape of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma tumours

British Journal of Cancer 2022 September 22 [Link]

Stefanie Hiltbrunner, Zoe Fleischmann, Ethan S Sokol, Martin Zoche , Emanuela Felley-Bosco , Alessandra Curioni-Fontecedro


Background: Malignant pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas are rare malignancies with unacceptable poor prognoses and limited treatment options. The genomic landscape is mainly characterised by the loss of tumour suppressor genes and mutations in DNA repair genes. Currently, data from next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mesothelioma tumours is restricted to a limited number of cases; moreover, data comparing molecular features of mesothelioma from the pleural and peritoneal origin with NGS are lacking.

Methods: We analysed 1113 pleural mesothelioma and 355 peritoneal mesothelioma samples. All tumours were sequenced with the FoundationOne® or FoundationOne®CDx assay for detection of substitutions, insertion-deletions, copy-number alterations and selected rearrangements in at least 324 cancer genes.

Results: This analysis revealed alterations in 19 genes with an overall prevalence of at least 2%. Alterations in BAP1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, NF2, MTAP, TP53 and SETD2 occurred with a prevalence of at least 10%. Peritoneal, compared to pleural mesothelioma, was characterised by a lower prevalence of alterations in CDKN2A, CDKN2B and MTAP. Moreover, we could define four distinct subgroups according to alterations in BAP1 and CDKN2A/B. Alterations in Hedgehog pathway-related genes (PTCH1/2 and SUFU) and Hippo pathway-related gene (NF2) as well as KRAS, EGFR, PDGFRA/B, ERBB2 and FGFR3 were detected in both cohorts.

Conclusion: Here, we report the molecular aberrations from the largest cohort of patients with mesothelioma. This analysis identified a proportion of patients with targetable alterations and suggests that molecular profiling can identify new treatment options for patients with mesothelioma.