Genetic Pathways in Peritoneal Mesothelioma Tumorigenesis

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics 2023 Jul-Aug [Link]

Ioannis Panagopoulos, Kristin Andersen, Marta Brunetti, Ludmila Gorunova, Ben Davidson, Marius Lund-Iversen, Francesca Micci, Sverre Heim


Background/aim: Mesotheliomas are tumors similar to, and probably derived from, mesothelial cells. They carry acquired chromosomal rearrangements, deletions affecting CDKN2A, pathogenetic polymorphisms in NF2, and fusion genes which often contain the promiscuous EWSR1, FUS, and ALK as partner genes. Here, we report the cytogenomic results on two peritoneal mesotheliomas.

Materials and methods: Both tumors were examined using G-banding with karyotyping and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). One of them was further investigated with RNA sequencing, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

Results: In the first mesothelioma, the karyotype was 25∼26,X,+5,+7,+20[cp4]/50∼52,idemx2[cp7]/46,XX[2]. aCGH detected gains of chromosomes 5, 7, and 20 with retained heterozygosity on these chromosomes. In the second tumor, the karyotype was 46,XX,inv(10)(p11q25)[7]/46,XX[3]. aCGH did not detect any gains or losses and showed heterozygosity for all chromosomes. RNA sequencing, RT-PCR/Sanger sequencing, and FISH showed that the inv(10) fused MAP3K8 from 10p11 with ABLIM1 from 10q25. The MAP3K8::ABLIM1 chimera lacked exon 9 of MAP3K8.

Conclusion: Our data, together with information on previously described mesotheliomas, illustrate two pathogenetic mechanisms in peritoneal mesothelioma: One pathway is characterized by hyperhaploidy, but with retained disomies for chromosomes 5, 7, and 20; this may be particularly prevalent in biphasic mesotheliomas. The second pathway is characterized by rearrangements of MAP3K8 from which exon 9 of MAP3K8 is lost. The absence of exon 9 from oncogenetically rearranged MAP3K8 is a common theme in thyroid carcinoma, lung cancer, and spitzoid as well as other melanoma subtypes.