Complex Genomic Rearrangement Patterns in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma due to Environmental Asbestos Exposure

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology, and Oncology 2024 [Link]

Tunç Tuncel, Güntülü Ak, Hasan Veysi Güneş, Muzaffer Metintaş


Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare type of cancer, and its main risk factor is exposure to asbestos. Accordingly, our knowledge of the genomic structure of an MPM tumor is limited when compared to other cancers. In this study, we aimed to characterize complex genomic rearrangement patterns and variations to better understand the genomics of MPM tumors. We comparatively scanned 3 MPM tumor genomes by Whole-Genome Sequencing and High-Resolution SNP array. We also used various computational algorithms to detect both CNAs and complex chromosomal rearrangements. Genomic data obtained from each bioinformatics tool are interpreted comparatively to better understand CNAs and cancer-related Nucleotide variations in MPM tumors. In patients 1 and 2, we found pathogenic nucleotide variants of BAP1, RB1, and TP53. These two MPM genomes exhibited a highly rearranged chromosomal rearrangement pattern resembling Chromomanagesis particularly in the form of Chromoanasynthesis. In patient 3, we found nucleotide variants of important cancer-related genes, including TGFBR1, KMT2C, and PALLD, to have lower chromosomal rearrangement complexity compared with patients 1 and 2. We also detected several actionable nucleotide variants including XRCC1, ERCC2. We also discovered the SKA3-DDX10 fusion in two MPM genomes, which is a novel finding for MPM. We found that MPM genomes are very complex, suggesting that this highly rearranged pattern is strongly related to driver mutational status like BAP1, TP53 and RB1.