Adenomatoid mesothelioma arising from the diaphragm: a case report and review of the literature

Journal of Medical Case Reports 2022 May 30 [Link]

Kenta Kawabe, Hiroki Sato, Akiko Kitano, Ryuichi Yoshida, Kazuya Yasui, Yuzo Umeda, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Tomokazu Fuji, Kenjiro Kumano, Kosei Takagi, Masaaki Kagoura, Takahito Yagi, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara


Background: Adenomatoid mesothelioma is a rare subtype of malignant mesothelioma that can be confused with adenomatoid tumors, which are classified as benign. The clinical features and optimal management of adenomatoid mesothelioma have not been elucidated in the literature. In this report, we present an extremely rare case of adenomatoid mesothelioma that developed on the peritoneal surface of the diaphragm as well as a literature review of adenomatoid mesothelioma in the abdominal cavity.

Case presentation: The patient was a 61-year-old Japanese woman who had undergone resection of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the hand 18 years prior. She was diagnosed with clinical stage I lung adenocarcinoma on follow-up chest radiography. Simultaneously, a 20-mm enhancing nodule with slow growth on the right diaphragm was detected on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. She presented no specific clinical symptoms. At this point, the lesion was suspected to be a hypervascular tumor of borderline malignancy, such as a solitary fibrous tumor. After a left upper lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma, she was referred to our department, and laparoscopic tumor resection was performed. Adenomatoid tumors were also considered based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, but we made the final diagnosis of adenomatoid mesothelioma using the results of the genetic profile. The patient remains alive, with no recurrence noted 6 months after surgery.

Conclusion: We encountered a valuable case of adenomatoid mesothelioma of peritoneal origin. There are some previously reported cases of adenomatoid mesothelioma and adenomatoid tumors that may need to be recategorized according to the current classification. It is important to accumulate and share new findings to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics and genetic status of adenomatoid mesothelioma.