Validity of diagnoses of respiratory diseases recorded in a Japanese administrative database

Respiratory Investigation 2023 March 1 [Link]

Nobuyasu Awano, Hirokazu Urushiyama, Hayato Yamana, Akira Yokoyama, Takahiro Ando, Takehiro Izumo, Minoru Inomata Yu Ito, Taisuke Jo


Background: Validating the information recorded in administrative databases is essential. However, no study has comprehensively validated the accuracy of Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data on various respiratory diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the validity of diagnoses of respiratory diseases in the DPC database.

Methods: We conducted chart reviews of 400 patients hospitalized in the departments of respiratory medicine in two acute-care hospitals in Tokyo, between April 1, 2019 and March 31, 2021, and used them as reference standards. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DPC data on 25 respiratory diseases were determined.

Results: Sensitivity ranged from 22.2% (aspiration pneumonia) to 100% (chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and malignant pleural mesothelioma) and was <50% for eight diseases, while specificity was >90% for all diseases. PPV ranged from 40.0% (aspiration pneumonia) to 100% (coronavirus disease 2019, bronchiectasis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, lung cancer of other histological types, and malignant pleural mesothelioma) and was >80% for 16 diseases. Except for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (82.9%) and interstitial pneumonia (other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) (85.4%), NPV was >90% for all diseases. These validity indices were similar in both hospitals.

Conclusions: The validity of diagnoses of respiratory diseases in the DPC database was high in general, thereby providing an important basis for future studies.