The current aetiology of malignant pleural effusion in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

South African Medical Journal 2018 March 28 [Link]

Koegelenberg CFN1, Bennji SM, Boer E, Schubert PT, Shaw JA, Allwood BW, Irusen EM


Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) represents a very common cause of pleural exudates, and is one of the most challenging pleural disorders to manage. This could be attributed to the paucity of high-quality experimental evidence, and inconsistent practice worldwide. South Africa (SA) currently has no data regarding the aetiology of MPE.

To identify the most common malignancies causing MPE in a population served by a large tertiary hospital in SA, and specifically the relative contribution of mesothelioma. A secondary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of chemical pleurodesis in a subset of patients.

We retrospectively included all known cases of MPE evaluated at our institution over a 3-year period with a tissue diagnosis of MPE.

The most common causes of MPE in a total of 274 patients were lung cancer (n=174, 63.5%), breast cancer (n=32, 11.7%), unknown primary (n=22, 11.7%) and mesothelioma (n=27, 9.9%). Talc pleurodesis was performed in 81 of 194 patients (41.8%) referred to our division, and was radiologically successful in 22 of 25 (88.0%) followed up to 3 months.

The main cause of MPE in our setting was lung cancer, followed by breast cancer, unknown primary and mesothelioma. Chemical pleurodesis was a viable palliative measure for MPE in this population.