Impact of Perioperative Systemic Chemotherapy on Survival for Patients Who have Diffuse Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Treated with CRS-HIPEC

Annals of Surgical Oncology 2023 January [Link]

Ambarish Chatterjee, Shigeki Kusamura, Dario Baratti, Marcello Guaglio, Luigi Battaglia, Marcello Deraco


Background: The available data on the role of perioperative systemic chemotherapy (SC) for diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) patients undergoing (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is heterogeneous and unstandardized. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of SC on the survival outcomes of DMPM patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC and to identify prognostic factors that affect the decision to administer SC.

Methods: Patients who underwent CRS-HIPEC in the National Cancer Institute Milan (1995-2020) were retrospectively analyzed using propensity score-matching of known covariates. The patients were grouped into three groups: group A (neoadjuvant chemotherapy [NACT] and no-SC), group B (no-SC and adjuvant chemotherapy [ACT]), and group C (NACT and ACT). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meir method, and prognostic factors were calculated using the Cox-regression method.

Results: After a median follow-up period of 45 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.348-83.652 months) for group A, 115 months (95% CI, 44.379-185.621 months) for group B, and 88 months (95% CI, 3.296-172.704 months) for group C, the study analyzed 154 DMPM patients consisting of matched group A (NACT: 60 + no-SC: 52 = 112), group B (ACT: 38 + no-SC: 38 = 76), and group C (NACT: 31 + ACT: 31 = 62). The patients undergoing ACT had better 5-year OS and PFS than the patients undergoing NACT. In the multivariate analysis, ACT was significantly associated with improved OS by 48% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% CI, 0.280-0.965, p = 0.038). For PFS, the association of ACT did not reach statistical significance (HR, 0.531; 95% CI, 0.266-1.058; p = 0.072).

Conclusion: The optimum treatment sequence for DMPM is CRS-HIPEC followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk patients. Upfront surgery appears preferable to NACT for patients amenable to complete CRS.