Efficacy of second-line treatment and prognostic factors in patients with advanced malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: a retrospective study

BMC Cancer 2021 March 20 [Link]

Rui Kitadai, Tatsunori Shimoi, Kazuki Sudo, Emi Noguchi, Yusuke Nagata, Ryoichi Sawada, Atsuo Takashima, Narikazu Boku, Kan Yonemori


Background: Standard treatment for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma has not been established, and systemic chemotherapy is administered according to malignant pleural mesothelioma. We previously reported the efficacy of cisplatin plus pemetrexed as first-line chemotherapy; however, the efficacy of second-line chemotherapy remains unknown.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma who started first-line systemic chemotherapy with platinum plus pemetrexed between March 2007 and February 2019 at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Patients who received second-line chemotherapy after failure of platinum plus pemetrexed were identified. We evaluated the efficacy of first- and second-line chemotherapy, and explored the prognostic factors. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and between-group differences were compared using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: A total of 54 and 26 patients received platinum plus pemetrexed as first- and second-line chemotherapy, respectively (gemcitabine in 12 patients; taxane, six; nivolumab, three; and others, five). In all patients, the median overall survival and progression-free survival after first-line chemotherapy were 16.6 and 7.3 months, respectively. Among patients who received second-line chemotherapy, the median overall survival, progression-free survival, and second-line overall survival were 16.9, 3.2, and 9.9 months, respectively. Patients who received ≥6 cycles of platinum plus pemetrexed as first-line chemotherapy had longer overall survival after second-line chemotherapy than those who did not (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.82; p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Second-line chemotherapy may be an option for refractory malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, especially in patients who have completed 6 cycles of platinum plus pemetrexed as first-line chemotherapy.