CLDN15 is a novel diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma

Scientific Reports 2021. June 15 [Link]

Masayuki Watanabe, Tomohito Higashi, Kana Ozeki, Atsuko Y Higashi, Kotaro Sugimoto, Hayato Mine, Hironori Takagi, Yuki Ozaki, Satoshi Muto, Naoyuki Okabe, Yuki Matsumura, Takeo Hasegawa, Yutaka Shio, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hideki Chiba


Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer with a poor survival rate. It is difficult to diagnose mesotheliomas because they show a variety of histological patterns similar to those of various other cancers. However, since currently used positive markers for mesotheliomas may show false positives or false negatives, a novel mesothelial positive marker is required. In the present study, we screened 25 claudins and found that claudin-15 is expressed in the mesothelial cells. We made new rat anti-human claudin-15 (CLDN15) monoclonal antibodies that selectively recognize CLDN15, and investigated whether CLDN15 is a good positive marker for malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs) using MPM tissue samples by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantification of the expression level using an immunoreactive score (IRS) method. Of 42 MPM samples, 83% were positive for CLDN15. The positive ratio was equal to or greater than other positive markers for MPMs including calretinin (81%), WT-1 (50%), and D2-40 (81%). In 50 lung adenocarcinoma sections, four cases were positive for CLDN15 and the specificity (92%) was comparable with other markers (90-100%). Notably, CLDN15 was rarely detected in 24 non-mesothelial tumors in the tissue microarray (12/327 cases). In conclusion, CLDN15 can be used in the clinical setting as a positive marker for MPM diagnosis.