JAMA Network Open 2021 November 1 [Link]

Sounak Gupta 1, Lori A Erickson, Christine M Lohse, Wei Shen, Beth A Pitel, Shannon M Knight, Kevin C Halling, Loren Herrera-Hernandez, Stephen A Boorjian, R Houston Thompson, Bradley C Leibovich, Rafael E Jimenez, John C Cheville


Importance: In BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is frequently associated with melanoma and/or mesothelioma, while germline MITF p.E318K alterations are being increasingly reported in melanoma/RCC. Limited data exist on the co-occurrence of melanoma and/or mesothelioma with renal neoplasia and the prevalence of associated germline alterations.

Objective: To assess the frequency of melanoma and/or mesothelioma co-occurring with renal neoplasia using our institutional nephrectomy registry and to determine the prevalence of BAP1 and MITF alterations within this cohort.

Design, setting, and participants: In this genetic association study, medical records from 8295 patients from 1970 to 2018, renal neoplasia co-occurring with melanoma and/or mesothelioma within a single institutional nephrectomy registry was reevaluated based on contemporary histopathologic criteria and the medical records were reviewed. Data were analyzed from September 2019 to May 2021.

Main outcomes and measures: Identified cases were screened for BAP1 loss using immunohistochemistry; while patients with melanoma and clear cell RCC were screened for MITF p.E318K alterations. Tumors from patients with potential germline alterations were analyzed with comprehensive molecular profiling using a 514-gene next generation sequencing panel.

Results: Of a total of 8295 patients, 93 (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.9%-1.4%) had melanoma and/or mesothelioma co-occurring with renal neoplasia (cutaneous melanoma, n = 76; uveal melanoma, n = 11; mesothelioma, n = 6). A total of 69 (74.2%) were male; 24 (25.8%) were female; median age at diagnosis of renal neoplasia was 63 years (IQR, 58-70 years) and the median duration of follow-up was 8.5 years (IQR, 5.0-14.6 years). Two patients with clear cell RCC had germline BAP1 alterations in the setting of cutaneous melanoma and mesothelioma. Two patients with hybrid oncocytic tumors had biallelic inactivation of FLCN in a setting of Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome associated with uveal melanoma and mesothelioma. Tumor-only screening of clear cell RCC associated with cutaneous (n = 53) and uveal melanoma (n = 6) led to the identification of 1 patient with a likely germline MITF p.E318K alteration. After excluding benign renal neoplasia (such as oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma), alterations of BAP1, FLCN, and MITF were identified in 5 of 81 patients (6.2%) with melanoma and/or mesothelioma and renal neoplasia. In contrast to hybrid oncocytic tumors in BHD, no unique genotype-phenotype correlations were seen for clear cell RCC with pathogenic BAP1/ MITF alterations and VHL loss of function variants. Four of 5 cases (80%) met current National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for germline testing based on a combination of age, multifocality, histologic findings, and family history.

Conclusions and relevance: In this genetic association study, findings support the continued use of these National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria and suggest more stringent screening may be warranted in this patient population.