Testicular/paratesticular mesothelial tumours: Uncommon histopathologic entities in a very complex anatomical site

Pathology Research and Practice 2024 January [Link]

Francesca Pagliuca, Stefano Lucà, Marco De Sio, Davide Arcaniolo, Gaetano Facchini, Marco De Martino, Francesco Esposito, Ferdinando DE Vita, Paolo Chieffi, Renato Franco


Mesothelial tumours of the testicular/paratesticular region are uncommon, poorly characterised and difficult-to-diagnose lesions. They encompass entirely benign proliferations (adenomatoid tumour) and malignant, very aggressive tumours (mesothelioma) whose morphological features can be overlapping, highly variable and confounding. Moreover, testicular/paratesticular mesothelial tumours comprise relatively new entities with indolent behaviour (well-differentiated papillary mesothelial tumour) as well as tumours which cannot be correctly included in any of the aforementioned categories and whose classification is still controversial. The molecular profile of such tumours represents an open issue. In fact, despite the recent discoveries about the genomic landscape of mesothelial proliferations at other sites (pleura, peritoneum), testicular/paratesticular mesothelial tumours, and namely mesotheliomas, are too rare to be extensively studied on large case series and they could arguably hide relevant differences in their molecular background when compared to the more common pleural/peritoneal counterparts.The aim of this review is to provide a guide for the pathological assessment of testicular/paratesticular mesothelial tumours. Herein, we describe the most recent updates on this topic according to the latest (year 2022) World Health Organisation Classification of Urinary and Male Genital Tumours (5th edition) and current literature. The diagnostic criteria, the main differentials and the role of ancillary techniques in the diagnosis of mesothelial testicular/paratesticular tumours are discussed.