Scientific Reports 2018 January [Link]
Mohamed BM et. al.
Citrullination, or the post-translational deimination of polypeptide-bound arginine, is involved in several pathological processes in the body, including autoimmunity and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that nanomaterials can trigger protein citrullination, which might constitute a common pathogenic link to disease development. Here we demonstrated auto-antibody production in serum of nanomaterials-treated mice. Citrullination-associated phenomena and PAD levels were found to be elevated in nanomaterials -treated cell lines as well as in the spleen, kidneys and lymph nodes of mice, suggesting a systemic response to nanomaterials injection, and validated in human pleural and pericardial malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples. The observed systemic responses in mice exposed to nanomaterials support the evidence linking exposure to environmental factors with the development of autoimmunity responses and reinforces the need for comprehensive safety screening of nanomaterials. Furthermore, these nanomaterials induce pathological processes that mimic those observed in Pleural MM, and therefore require further investigations into their carcinogenicity.