International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 2022 March 29 [Link]
Kyle M Devins, Lawrence Zukerberg, Jaclyn C Watkins, Yin Pun Hung, Esther Oliva
Peritoneal mesothelioma (PM) and serous neoplasms can be difficult to differentiate, particularly in small biopsies. BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is expressed in benign tissues, but over 50% of PMs demonstrate complete loss of nuclear expression. Claudin-4, a tight junction protein, is expressed in most epithelial tumors but not in mesotheliomas. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is frequently co-deleted with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a in mesotheliomas. These markers have proven useful in separating mesothelioma from its mimics, particularly when tumors are pleural based. In the peritoneum, BAP1 loss has been rarely reported in high-grade serous carcinomas, but overall, these markers have been minimally evaluated in ovarian serous borderline tumors and low-grade serous carcinomas. Thus, we assessed the utility of BAP1, claudin-4, and MTAP in the differential diagnosis of PM and low-grade serous neoplasms. Eighteen PM (16 epithelioid, 1 biphasic, and 1 sarcomatous), 24 low-grade serous carcinomas, and 25 serous borderline tumors were stained for BAP1, claudin-4, and MTAP. Loss of BAP1 nuclear expression was observed in 12 (67%) PM (11 epithelioid, 1 biphasic) but was retained in all serous tumors. Claudin-4 was positive in all serous tumors and negative in all PM. Complete loss of cytoplasmic MTAP was noted in 3 (17%) PMs and 1 (4%) serous borderline tumor, while all low-grade serous carcinomas showed retained expression. BAP1 loss reliably distinguishes PM from serous tumors, although it lacks sensitivity. Claudin-4 is a reliable marker to exclude PM. MTAP loss may occur in both PM and serous tumors, and thus is not useful in distinguishing these entities.